Petrochemical, fossil fuels


This area is for people interested in thermal products and processes related to the petrochemical and hydrocarbons sector. Click on the items below.


Case studies

Thermal insulation for oil pipes This is increasingly important in the UK North Sea oil production as the depths of drilling are increasing.  The temperature of the sea is about 6 °C, significantly below the wax point of the crude oil. Oil emerging from he oil wells is warm, however it cools during flow through production pipes. Without adequate insulation there is a risk of the crude oil solidifying in the pipes.



Ythan Environmental Services - supply products and solutions for thermal insulation of oil pipes and oilfield chemical issues.


Industry guides

SETARAM has produced a brochure describing use of the calorimetric technique for the characterisation of gas hydrates (formation, dissociation, heat capacity, kinetics).



API (American Petroleum Institute) a research institute for the oil and gas industry, producing different technical publications, training courses and standards.

FORCE is a Norwegian organisation providing opportunities for participants to discuss with research and technology providers, development in tools, methods and research related to improved oil recovery, concerning reservoir characterisation.

SINTEF is an independent Norwegian research organisation with a Petroleum Research Department for identification and extraction of petroleum resources, including thermal energy processes and energy systems. SINTEF also has a gas hydrate laboratory.

Heriot Watt University Institute of Petroleum Engineering is a specialised centre in teaching, training and research on upstream oil and gas resources for the UK petroleum industry.

Heriot Watt University Centre for Gas Hydrate Research has research work covering a wide range of gas hydrate topics, including flow assurance, gas hydrates as an alternative energy resource, and geohazard issues.

Colorado School of Mines Center for Hydrate Research performs fundamental and applied research on gas hydrates, especially for flow assurance departments of oil companies, using the calorimetric technique .

SPE (Society of Petroleum Engineers) aim is to collect, disseminate, and exchange technical knowledge concerning the exploration, development and production of oil and gas resources, and related technologies.

IFP (Institut Français du Pétrole) conducts scientific research and industrial development, has training, and an information services centre in the fields of oil & natural gas, their use, in particular by vehicles, and new energy and environmental technologies (production of fuels from biomass, biofuels, hydrogen, the capture and storage of CO2, etc.)



HYDRATECH is a research project supported by the European Commission under the Fifth Framework Programme to identify the presence of methane hydrate, and to quantify the amount present in sediments on continental margins. A working group is dedicated to the formation of gas hydrates versus temperature and pressure.

DEEPSTAR is a joint industry technology development project focused on advancing deepwater technologies. It includes oil companies, experts, laboratories and vendors. A particular interest is flow assurance (especially formation of gas hydrates according to temperature and pressure).

DP (Norwegian Deepwater Programme ) is a programme dedicated to carry out cost-effective preparations for safe and efficient drilling and field development. A particular interest is formation of gas hydrates according to temperature and pressure.

Information about European Union-funded projects may be found at CORDIS (Community Research & Development Information Service). And you can try to find specific projects here.



Temperature measurement

Flirthermography provide a d ocument (pdf) on Thermographic Monitoring of Refractory Lined Petroleum Refinery Equipment.

Infrared (non-contact) temperature measurement equipment and related resources (like training, calibration & industry application notes) can be found at the sites below:

FLIR Systems
Land Instruments International
Mikron Infrared


Thermal property data

Firstly, try the evitherm data centre, where you might find the data you need and, if it's pay-for, more cheaply.

CODATA has established a task group for data on natural gas hydrates.

The Gas Hydrate Database offers a convenient and accessible information system covering all aspects of gas hydrates issues, with experimental data on phase equilibria, thermodynamic modelling of hydrate behaviour and thermodynamic properties of gas hydrates.


Useful links

Offshore-Technology a website for the offshore oil and gas industry.

INTEC Engineering gives on its website a large list of petroleum resources.

ChemWeb is a chemistry portal launched in April 1997, offering a wide range of information for those in research chemistry, the chemicals industries and related disciplines. Membership is free.

Energy Institute is the leading professional body for the energy industries, representing almost 12,000 professionals both nationally and internationally. Promotes safe, environmentally responsible and efficient supply and use of energy in all its forms and applications. 


Heriot Watt University Centre for Gas Hydrate Research offers multiphase gas hydrate prediction software, including PVT (Pressure-Volume-Temperature) calculations, covering systems both with and without gas hydrates, and prediction of the gas hydrate stability zone for various reservoir fluids.

FLOWPHASE offers different engineering software for the petroleum industry: AQUAlibrium for p hase equilibrium calculations for mixtures, calculations of the enthalpy, heat capacity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity; and HYDRATE Plus to predict hydrate formation temperatures and to minimise inhibitor injection costs.


HARSNET A thematic network to create a forum for universities, research centres and industries collaborate to develop and disseminate knowledge that can be used for hazard assessment of highly reactive systems.


IFP Training is an international training organisation of IFP for the oil, gas and petrochemical industries.

Heriot Watt University Centre for Gas Hydrate Research organises for the petroleum industry a 5-day course designed to give an insight into gas hydrates, their properties, their formation in transmission lines, drilling fluids, and process facilities. Particular emphasis is placed on predicting gas hydrate formation conditions in different production scenarios, hydrate plug removal, and avoiding operational problems.

SINTEF (Norway) organises a gas hydrate course for the petroleum industry, including formation and properties of hydrates according to temperature and pressure.

PEICE (Petroleum Institute for Continuing Education) provides various types of short courses, including online training, for the petroleum industry in various fields of application.

Reference materials

CANMET Three petroleum cokes have been characterised for four parameters based on ASTM D2 Petroleum Products standard test methods including moisture, ash content, sulphur and calorific value.